The Romanian People - Continuer of the European Neolithic Civilization



Author: ªtefan Stanciu 



Although Europe has been troubled by numerous wars during its history  it still represents an ample and old cultural syntheses, flexible to external influence. Beyond all appearances, it knew a continuous development and was endowed with spiritual structures emerged 8 or 9 millenniums ago. In 7000 BC large areas in the South-East of Europe - the Danubian space, the Adriatica basin, the islands of the Egee sea, the South and East of Italian Peninsula - knew an early flourishing. Here the Old European Civilization emerged in a process which lasted 4000 years.

The remarkable accomplishments of this civilization - "urban settlements, a writing system and richly ornamented temples” - represented the starting point for the spreading of culture in the European space.

The Old European Civilization emerged after the introduction of food producing economy through the cultivation of land, rendered evident in its turn by the wheat-barley-sheep-goat-cow-pig complex which appeared just before 7000 BC on the Greek shore, in the East of Italy, Creta, the South of Anatolia, Siria, Palestina, the Near East, the Low Danube basin, Romania and the whole Balkanic space.

 Although this vast region was characterized by mutual exchanges and influences, the old Europe went on its own way, generating similar cultures, with direct links with each other, but which formed a self-sustained, original complex through their distinct accomplishments, different from the evolutions in the Far East or the Northern and Western Europe.

Around 6500 B.C., from within the Old Europe emerged a particular kind of  pottery dried at high temperature and polished. Gradually the painted pottery was introduced with vases of different forms and styles, suggesting the development of an original idea with no connection with the process of migration and transfer. At the end of the 7th millennium B.C., technology and arts knew flourished in the South and East of Europe and the centre of Anatolia, the "bridge” of islands in the Egean Sea making possible the exchanges between the two regions.

The great number of clay statues, dating from before 6000 B.C., discovered in Romania, Bulgaria, ex-Jugoslavia, the South-East of Hungary, have common features with those characteristic to the Hassuna and Samarra cultures from Mesopotamia.

The mythical imagery spread throughout this large area indicates an obvious uniformity reflected in architecture as well; rectangular houses, some of them having buttresses, stone foundations, brick walls and roofs made of plants, built on a wooden structure. This kind of rectangular houses formed the Neolithic villages from the Old Europe, some of them being surrounded by moats and walls.

The Neolithic culture which developed in the entire area of the Southern and Eastern Europe had an unitary development. Inspite of this it is known under different names given by archaeologists according to the areas where its traces were discovered in the Modern Era.

Neolithic cultural complexes from the Romanian space (established between 6500-3500 B.C.) are known under different names. From a geographical point of view, they surpassed Romania’s present territory.

By 5000 B.C. the ‘Old European” culture was already crystalized toghether with its regional variants. It presented significant traditions in the art of pottery, architecture, cult organization, leading institutions and a rudimentary writing system and handicraft skills as well.

Towards the end of the Neolithic period people began to use metals, especially copper.

The Neolithic populations of farmers and handicrafts-men lived in big numerous villages which became later urban settlements (in the Cucuteni culture several thousands of necropolises and settlements are known). They also built temples (Cascioarele), created a mythical world represented by earthen statuettes and cult pots, suggesting an intense spiritual life.

The interpretation given to signs engraved on pottery (found in Neolithic settlements - Tartaria, Vinca, Fafos, Kosovska Mitrovika, Gradesnica) led to the conclusion that had appeared 2 millenniums before the Sumerian one.

During 4 millenniums the Old European Civilization gave birth to a very profound substratum which was at the origin of the spiritual life and subsequent European cultures, especially in the regions where the Neolithic manifested. The symbols and graphical images of the Old European Civilization form "the grammar and syntax of a meta-language by means of which a whole system of mythical thinking was transmitted to us”. The goddesses and natural symbols of the Neolithic "tells’ today about the European cultures in a language which proves the perenniality and continuity of the creators of the spiritual pattern of the continent.

The waves of the patriarchal and pastoral Indo-European populations coming from East in the Centre and East of Europe led to a gradual "hybridization” of the two different cultures and systems without affecting the domestic cultures.

The new inhabitants who had come in successive waves were inferior when compared to the autochthonous population and didn’t possess the necessary strenght and show interest in eliminating them.

The Neolithic civilization from the South and East of Europe got into direct touch with the Proto-Indo-European population of the pastoral-patriarchal type from the North-Pontic steppes for the first time at the beginning of the 4th millennium B.C. (between 4000 and 3500 B.C.).

The desintegration of the Old Europe didn’t affect the previous achievements and customs. On the contrary, by "hybridation” new cultural complexes strongly influenced by the Indo-European cultures appeared.

The migratory population integrated in the more numerous domestic coommunities. Because of the archaeological discoveries made especially in tumular tombs, of the wrong estimation concerning the new-comers’ weapons and of the mistaken idea that they had brought metallurgy in Europe, many researchers over-estimated the role of the migratory populations. The Indo-European groups penetrated imaking use of their weapons in the middle of peaceful communities, in the same way all migratory population did.

The Neolithic cultures in Romania assimilated in their turn, material and spiritual elements from the new-comers, thus giving birth to three important cultural complexes: Horodistea-Foltesti (in Moldavia and the North-east of Wallachia) and Cotofan-Bodrog (in Oltenia and the intracarpathian space)8. This period was characterized by globular pottery with median ears and large-opening pots without totally elliminating the pots from the previous Neolithic cultures. Beside these painted pots from in the areas the Neolithic cultures cord-ornamented pots were unearthed as well. This kind of ornamented pots- with cord - were discovered on a large area (Romania, the South of Ukraine, Bulgaria, the South of Poland, Czechia, Slovakia and the South of Germany). This fact confirms the hypothesis according to which the Neolithic cultures vein was predominant.

The Romanian space was also influenced by the South, fact leading to important changes in the people’s beliefs, the underground world of the dead being replaced by a heavenly one, that of the spirits.

Changes in the Neolithic and the Age of Bronze emerged under the influence of the Indo-European groups whose "primitive” country hasn’t been located yet: a) Central Asia, around the Aral Sea, from where they migrated towards Europe, Iran and India; b) in Middle Danube area; c) in Ukraine and South of Poland from  where they went towards the South-East and centre of Europe; d) the balcanic area from where they migrated towards South & North. The last theory, the one concerning the "Balcanic” origin of Indo-European populations was sustained by the continuity of the Neolithic elements in the 3rd and 2nd millennium  in the Carpathian-Danubian Pontic space. This theory confirms that the allongeneous populations cannot disintegrate powerful civilizations with a millenary history.

The uncertanly concerning the location of the indo-europeans "primitive’ country is also the result of the lack of collaboration among archaeologists, anthropologists and linguists and of  the negletion of the historical logic according to which neolithic civilizations went through process of evolution.

It is certain that the peaceful and stable Neolithic civilizations from the South-East of Europe have mixed with groups of warriors, animal breeders who where permanently moving and looking for grazing areas. Forced by climate changes in their "primitive” country the warrior sheperds "migrated” and of course, they took advantage of their weapons and fighting-leaders cope easier and efficiently with the opposition indigenous populations.

This process lasted for centuries in the Euro-Asiatic area.

Later on during the entire Age of Bronze (1900 - 1100 B.C.) on the historical territory of the Romanian people an original and lasting  culture of the Daco-Thracian tribes characterized by ornamented  pottery with flaring handles, emerged between the Egee Sea and Wooden Carpathians. This period is  characterized by stability when speaking about populations, it was quiter millennium although, by archaeological discoveries it had been found that the period knew a wider spread of weapons the specific weapon being the bronze axe with disk in the area between Transylvania and Nipru. At the beginning of the Age of Bronze the course of migrations changed from Serbia to the present days Macedonia. Some Thracian tribes dardanii, moesii, frigieni, pelagonii migrated towards the North -West of Small Asia. The later Grecian Sources, the Hittite documents and the Egiptian inscriptions from the time of Ramsee II (1290 - 1224 B.C. ) proved the existance of the Thracian tribes in Small Asia Thracians had already been known and in Grecian texts with Blineary writing, they mentioned Tre-ke-wi-ja which meant Thracia in 13th century B.C.

Thus, Thracians have already had a "country” of their own. During the Trojan War, Homer (Iliada II, 833 - 852) mentioned that toghether with misi faught peonii, ciconii paflagonii, dardanii and frigienii who put up resistance to the grecian expedition. Gradually, Thracians became known among the nations of the Ancient World in such a way that, the father of hystory, Herodot (Histories, V, 3) said that: " the Thracian nation in the most numerous of the whole world, after that of  inzi. If they had only one ruler or if they  got along with each other after me it would be invincible and much more powerful than all nations”. It wasn’t the time for uniting the Thracians in a state form. Thracians  were the continuers of the big neolithic civilization in the Old Europe.

During the Old Iron Age (about 1100 - 450 B.C.) changes in the Thracian World weren’t spectacular: their settlements were numerous in the Carpathian-Danubian - Pontic space, the pottery continued its earlier stages, the majority of weapons were made of bronze, they built many fortresses and had commercial relationships with the Grecian world and the North-Pontic scitic tribes.

The  black Sea, discovered by Grecian navigators in the 13th  century B.C., became a communication space for the Thracian World as well. Geto-Dacian tribes, the most known branch of the thracians, wewre located compactly from Balkan to Gaelitia and Slovakia to Bug, the centre of their power being concentrated in fortresses, and civilian settlements or water course. It is interesting that, from a geographical point of view, the place of these fortresses was taken by the old Romanian towns and by the majority of the modern Romanian towns.

The oldest pieces of information about the Geto-Dacians from the Danube basin are provided by the grecian historian Hacateu (about 550 - 470 B.C.)  who said that crobizi and trizi were  located in the Argamum fortified town situated from the South of the Danube Delta to the present day Varna region. The Expedition led by the king of  Persians Darius I ( 521 - 484 B.C.) against the sciti led by their king Idanthyrsos expedition which lasted between 519 and 510 B.C.)is told by Herodot (histoories, IV, 83-143). After Herodot, the Getae who "are  the most brave and honest of Thracians” and  " consider themselves as immmortal” decided to fight against the Persian king (Histories, IV, 83-143).  This short piece of information leads to the conclusion that Getae were aware of their  stability without abandonning their natal places because of danger the same way they used to do earlier.

In the North of the Black Sea on the inferior course of Don, Nistru, Bug and Nipru the sciti lived, a population of shepherds "who don’t have fortresses or stone walls but all of them carry their own "house” and are archees on horseback, gaining their living not from ploughing but from the growing  of cattle and live in carts” (Herodot, Histories, IV, 99-100, 103). Such a nomad population couldn’t influence the stable Thracians who were farmers and craftsmen and who had built powerful fortresses. In the Geto-dacian settlements, weapons ressembling those of the sciti were found, fact which helped some researchers get to the conclusion that the scitice tribes penetrated massively on the territory of the Thracians 11. During the time of Herodot the agathyrsi, neuri, melanhleni lived in the north-Pontic Steppe;

Such a powerful Thracian king, named Dromichaites, is mentioned at the beginning of the 3rd century BC and who ended by becoming related with Macedonian kings after a succession of battles with Lyisimachus and Agathocles. The capital of the state led by Dromichaites was Helis in the Northern part of the Danube. Contemporary to Dromichaites, in Dobrudja, was another Geta kingdom led by Zalmodegikos, state also attested in the following century under the leadership of Moskonos and Rhemaxos (about 200 BC).

The Thracian world was formed in the North of the Danube, in the East of Carpathians and in the interCarpathian area (the kingdom of Oroles and Rubobostes).

Under the king Burebista (about 70-44 BC) the Geto-Dacians formed a large state between the middle Danube and the Bug river, from Haemus Mountains (Balkans) to the Wooden Carpathians.

The politic and religious centre of that large state was placed in the Orastiei Mountains, its royal capital still being under the sign of suppositions: at Popesti on Arges, at Archidava in Banate, at Ocnita in Oltenia, at Zargidova or Piroboridava in the South of Moldavia.

After the death of Burebista, the Dacian state decomposed in small kingdoms ruled by kings whose names were kept by Helenic and Latin sources: Coson (Cotiso) about 48-38 BC, Dicomes and Comosicus between 32 BC and 28 AC, Duras Durpaneus between 68-87 AC and Decebal between 87-106 AC.

In Moldavia, between the Carpathians and the Bug river, the Carpae, tribes of Geto-Dacian origin had powerful fortresses and would later set up stable state forms on a large territory, with centres of power placed along the Siret river.

In the Northern part of Dacia there were the Caestoboci, Thracians related-tribes (placed in Gaelitia and the Northern part of Bucovina). The Tyragetas were settled in Eastern part of Dacia, across middle Nistru river. Thus Geto-Dacian population settled in state forms on a territory which had included the specific spreading area of Hamangia, Cucuteni, Gumelnita and Starcevo-Cris cultures in the Neolithic period. Therefore the Geto-Dacian people settled in the area for 5 millenia, without discontinuities and assimilated elements from the Indo-European populations from the area of Old European Civilization succeeded in achieving the unity in the middle and the South-Eastern part of Europe through conquests and stipends.

The Romans attacked and conquered Illyria (about 225-219 BC) and the Eastern shore of Adriatic Sea, defeated Makedonia (year 168 BC) and turned Greece into a Roman province (about 168 BC), conquered Pergam (about 133 BC) and ensured a powerful military centre in Small Asia. The powerful Geto-Dacian kingdom led by Burebista stopped the Roman expansion in the Balkan, for short period of time. Between 29-28 BC, the Romans defeated the Celts in the middle part of the Danube and expanded the limits of the empire to that river.

The only strong enemies of Romans in the South-Eastern part of Europe were the Dacians from Banat and Transylvania who were irreversibly defeated by Traian in 106 AC. The Carpae multitribal union from  Moldavia became vassal to Rome after the defeat of Decebal. The Thracian-Dacian populations included in the territory of the Roman Empire, continued their existance, taking over the Latin language and the elements of culture and material civilization from Romans.

The quiet life of stipend Carpae was threatened by the migration of the Goths from North to South at the end of the 2nd century. The Goth tribes were attested in the Southern part of Sweden in the first century AC, from where they migrated first towards the North part of Poland (first century BC) and in 195 they reached the Northern part of Ukraine.

The movement of Goths made the Eastern Slavs (creators of the late Zurubinti culture) migrate in the region of Superior Nipru. The Goths moved from the mouth of Vistula to the valley of Bug towards Ukraine, being followed by Gepidae who were present under king Fastida leadership in the Northern part of Dacia where they fought against the Goths led by king Ostrogotha. In 238, an alliance between Carpae and Goths attaked Moesia. The alliance was defeated by Romans who refused the stipends they asked for. Between 238-248, the Goths conquered the steppe area from Ukraine and made the Sarmatians run in Moldavia from where they attacked the Roman Dacia together with the Carpae.

The disorganization of the empire in the Southern part of the Danube and the war fought in the East with Palmyra made the Emperor Aurelianus (270-275) leave Dacia without fighting, only with the army and the administration, in the same manner it would happen with Britannia in 407. After these events, the Vandals were recognized as federations and they might had undertaken expeditions in the ex-Roman Dacia, hypothesis confirmed by the archaeological discoveries from Transylvania.

The free Dacians, the Jayzges (Sarmatians) and the Carpae (also free Dacians) entered the Roman Dacia. In the Southern part of  Danube river Dacia Ripensis was settled, a province defeated by the 5th legion Macedonica and the 13th legion Gemina which also controlled the Northern part of the river, between Dierna and Sucidava, with over 10 Roman camps and fortresses. In 272, coming victorious from East, the Emperor Aurelianus defeated the Carpae who had entered the Moesia, between Carsium and Sucidava (in the middle part of Dobrudja), being given the title of Carpicus Maximus. The Emperor Probus (276-284) came to the Danube in the 279 and he received the Getic population as friends and subjects in order to relax the tensioned situation. The Goths, who had entered the Ukrainian steppes, made their domination harder for the Slavs who took refuge in the Superior basin of Nipru from where they dislocated the Baltic tribes and created a new culture; another part of these Slavs (100,000 Bastarnae) went through the Southern part of Moldavia and settled up in the Roman Empire in 280, without influencing the extant population when crossing the Danube. The Bastarnae will be followed by a big number of Gepidae (from Poland), the Ostrogoths (from Ukraine) and the Vandals (from Gaelitia) who, for sure, crossed the territory of the Carpae.

Because the pressure of the Goths, in 295, some groups of Carpae, who were coming from East, would be colonized by Dioclitian in Pannonia (between 284-305) while others would pass in Transylvania and Oltenia.

After the conquest of Dacia, at the beginning of the 2nd century, its colonization was made with thousands of ex-servicemen, handicrafts men and public office workers and, in 212, by Caracalla Emperor constitution the Roman citizenship was granted for the majority of the inhabitants of the Empire, fact which gave for all the people the feeling of affiliation to the Roman civilization. It can be considered that the Roman civilization was officially and definitively implemented in the Northern part of the Danube.

After the retreat of Aurelian, the army, administration and the richer part of the population left, the majority remaining in their native places.

The process of Romanization continued inside and around the former province. The use of the Latin language in its popular form, accesible to the army and administration, with simplifying grammatical formes was the first sign of the Romanization process. The Latin language and the maintenance of some old words, perpetuated over the centuries, also reflected the socio-political organization of the Romanized population.

Because of the internal crisis of the Roman Empire and the threatenings of the migrators, the emperor Dioclitian (284-305) and Constantine the Great (307-337) acted for the reorganization of the state. The German tribes which attacked whole Northern boundary from the North Sea to the Black Sea were the most active.

At the beginning of the 4th century, the Goths dispersed in the Moldavian territory and on the present-day territory of Ukraine, being divided in two groups of tribes: a) Ostrogoths, placed in the East of Nipru, together with the antii, sclavinii (the old Bastarnae and peucini) and the Sarmatians - neighbours of Heruli (German tribe) in the East of Nipru and Boranii and Boruskii (Slavs) in the North; b) the Visigoths who entered first in Moldavia and then in Wallachia from where they prepared their penetration in the Roman Empire. For a complete image, it can be mentioned that the tribes of Vandals had driven away the Caestoboci and settled up themselves in Gaelitia at the beginning of the 5th century; the Gepidae were in the Vistula basin area and of the Superior Bug area, next to the Venedi (Slavs) and had as neighbours the German tribes of Skiri from Pomerania in the North-West. Those populations with the Goths as leaders, expected the moment of weakness of the Roman Empire, their setting up in the mentioned territory being only temporary. In response to all those actions, the emperor Constantine the Great had repelled the attack of Goths and Sarmatians in the 323, he hunted after them in the Plain of Wallachia and the Visigothic king Ransimodus was killed. The victorious emperor tried to consolidate his victory and the borders of the empire; he rebuilt the old Roman bridge from Celei, in 328, built Roman camps and fortified castles on the left side of Danube river, made his allies the federates Vandals, who were placed in Oltenia and gave the command of the war against the Visigoths to his son Constantine (the future emperor Constantine the 2nd). After these successes, the Romans returned in the North of Danube. A Roman camp was built at Pietroasele and the 9th legion Claudia was brought back from Durostorum; the Daphne fortress was built near Oltenia, a guard tower was also realized in the old Roman camp from Barbosi (Galaþi). After the return of the Romans in the North of Danube a century of quiet life followed for the Romanized population from the former Dacia, period confirmed by the archaeological discoveries which certify the material development (archaeological discoveries to Barlad-Valea Seaca-Barcea-Tecuci, Pietroasele).

The leaving of the Ostrogoths and Heruli from Ukraine, of the Vandals from Gaelitia and of the Gepidae from Poland facilitated the appearance of some Slavs tribes unions in those regions, which began migrating towards Czechia, Slovakia and Eastern part of Germany at the beginning of the 6th century. At the beginning of the ruling period of Justinian (527-565), the Sclavinii from Gaelitia started attaking the Eastern Roman Empire through Thracian diocese. In that period the Slavs were divided into three groups: Venedi (Western Slavs from Poland); Sclavinii (in the Western part of Ukraine) and Antii (the Southern branch of Eastern Slavs, placed in Ukraine in the proximity of Hun-Bulgarians from the steppe); the Antii who were situated on the territory between Nipru and Nistru in the Eastern part of Moldavia. Between 528 and 558, the Antii and the Sclavinii undertook 10 attacks against Thracia and Illyria. In the middle of 6th century, groups of Sclavinii had already settled in the Southern side of the Danube, near Ulmetum and Durostorum. In 545, the emperor Justinian offered the Turis fortress to the Antii, also paying them stipends, in order to stop the Huns’invasion in the empire (probably Tyras fortress). In 557, the Avars appeared in Ukraine, a people of Turk origin, who migrated to Europe as result of their defeat by the Turks from Central Asia. The Avars defeated the Slav tribes of Anti between Bug and Nistru and, in 562, under Baian khan command they reached the Danube and asked stipends from Byzantines and they were refused by emperor Justin the 2nd  (565-578). Because they had been called by Longobards and followed by Turks, the Avars left Ukrainian steppes, they defeated the Gepidae and settled, temporarily, on the territory of the former Roman Dacia. Their strong appearance  in the Northern part of the Black Sea stopped the attacks of antii, sclavinilor and Bulgarians over the Byzantine provinces. After three campaigns in 568, 570 and 573 the Avars made peace with Byzantines and after that they developed theirs political centre in Pannonia, replacing the Longobards. In 579, under Tiberiu the Second (578-582) a hundred thousand of sclavinii invaded Illyria, were phundered the empire for four years and then settled all over. The emperor asked the help of the Avars; they crossed Illyria, following the slav army commanded by Dauritas and defeated them, probably in Oltenia.

In 582, the Avars conquered Sirmium , where Baian, their Khan moved his residence. In 584, the sclavinii, under the command of Ardagast, ravaged Thrace as far as Adrianopole ; between 585-588 the same sclavinii reached  Salonic. In their turn, the Avars attacked  Moesia and reached Tomis.

In 593, the general Priscus, with a strong army crossed the Danube, defeated Ardegast, then advanced through the Heliwachia river’s swamps and with the support of Gepidae, Musokios the leader of sclavinilor, who operated in Moldavia, was caught.

In response, in 595, sclavinii invaded  Moesia where they were defeated by Petru general, who continued the military actions in the North side of Danube and, in the following years, against the avars, bulgarians and slavs leaded by Piragast.

The Avars attacked the Byzantine Empire on a large front, from Dalmatia to the Black Sea. The Byzantine generals got through ten attacks of Slavs and Avars, with difficulty populations who  hadn’t stable settlements. The autumn 602, the Roman army, under the command of general Petru,  took order to hibernate in the Northern part of Danube, in Wallachia. The soldiers were discontented, they revolted and chose Focas as emperor (602-610). The Byzantine army wouldn’t resist near the Danube and they come back with the new emperor to Constantinopole.

The Slavs took imediately advantage of this, they crossed the Danube and invaded the Byzantine Empire, in 604 the Avars attacked Italy through Histria. A strong barbarian coalition  between the Avars, the Bulgarians on the Tisa and the Slavs attacked the Constantinopole in 617 and 626, but the capital resisted. During Heraclius the ruling of  (610-640), the Slavs crossed in the Southern part of Danube, pushed the Roman population near the mountains  and  obliged the imperial armies to retreat. The Byzantine Empire was weakened by the repeated attacks of the migrators along the Danube  and by the war with the Persians who conquered Siria and Egypt

In their masive movement to the Southern part of Danube, the Slavs weren’t accompanied by the Romanized local population who remained there, becauseit wasn’t an expedition in a robbery purpose but they were seeking a settlement. The slavinii had  their lost "country” in Volania, Gaelitia and Podolia after  their came in Byzantine Empire, their  language being similar being similar to that of the Slavs.. In the same period, the ulici tribe  of Eastern Slavs people settled in the left side of Nistru river, in the  area of the Inferior basin. The new "settlement” of slavs didn’t involve the Romanized territories where the Romanian people had already been formed. The Roman population was almost completely Gentile/Christian, as Nicetas by Remesiana revealed through his activity; he was borned in Dacia and wrote and spoke the Latin language and was practising a  theology of Western structure, similar with the theological solutions of the Damasus synod in 380. Nicetas  was a Daco-Roman fact proved by the testimonies of Paulinus, by his activity and by the frequent use of Nicetas name in that area. Nicetas brought the Evangelic words to all territories both in the Northern and in the Southern side Danube, in the second part of the 4th  century and the beginning of the next century.

After the Slavs, the Bulgarians from Kuban were invaded by hazari, a people who had separated from the Kaganat of the turks and took refuge in Pannonia from where, under Alteko Khan, a part of them reached Italy and  others led by Kuber ould be mentioned in Macedonia in 670.

Another branch of Bulgarians from Onglos (Bugeac)  led by Asparuh, followed by hazari crossed the Danube (between Silistra and Varna) in 679. The last Asian migrators, the Petchenegs, the Cumarians, the Hungarians and the Tatars weren’t able to influence the development of the Romanized populatuon from the Northern side of Danube, who preserved the customs and traditions between Nistru and Tisa.

Between the 7th-8th  centuries, the Roman inhabitants from Moldavia, Wallachia, from intracarphatian area and those from Banat, Crisana and maramures was named Romans and the contemporary historians named them dacians, to differentiate to other inhabitants who live in other empire provinces.

The Roman population had belonged to the Eastern Roman World and, in the next centuries, there named "vlahi”, "valahi” or "volohi”.

The abandonment of Dacia province from the Roman army and administration meaned the beginning of Romanian people history, who envolved  and developed in tight relation with Roman population from South of Danube, the Romanian language kept numerous Daco-tracians words in latin gramatical structure, in the same way with Albanian or Bulgarian language. Some slave words entered in Romanian language were due more to Romanian people affiliation to the Orthodoxie, to the ordinary loans taked over through bilinguism or through direct connection with South slave tribes, between the II-X centuries.

The most basic words from romanian language have latin origin and continually using the same agricultural  tools, between II-XII centuries prove that the romanian people kept their occupations, the agriculture was the base of economy. The Romanian people had remained in his homeland and supported only easy influences from migratory people.

Romanian people was formed in a Old European Civilization Base constituted for three milleniums in neolithic and mixed with indo-european elements for two other milleniums.

The romanization of gaeto-carpo-dacian population ridged of final stage of indo-europenization, a trial to recover Rome, under the symbol of the eagles of the Old European Civilization space spreaded to west untill the Atlantic Ocean and in Britain.

The structures constituted in neolithic, the spiritual conquests during five millnniums of civilization didn’t transform under the migrators influences which only a few decades was in contact with daco-roman population from Danube to Carphatians. These migrator people seeking for the european civilization didn’t influence the trend of hystory of old european people but, in normal way, they was integrated through dialects differentiated the people from lingvistic viewpoint. All languages of Europe, with four exceptions, have the same origin.

The neolithic and the indo-europeans could be the start from a new Unit Europa.














1.      See: Gimbutas, Marija,Civilization and Culture. Prehistoric vestiges in the South-Eastern Europe, Bucharest, 1989, page 51;

2.      Ibidem, page 59. Chronological table of the Old European Civilization;

3.      Dumitrescu, Vladimir, Edifice destiné au culte découverte dans la couche Boian-Spanþov de la station-téll de Cascioarele, in Dacia, XIV, 1970, page 5-24, and Dumitrescu, Hortensia Un modéle de sanctuaire découverte dans la station énéolithique de Cascioarele, in Dacia, XII, 1968, page 381-394;

4.      Georgiev, Vladimir, I., Nikolov, Bogdan, Pismenosta varbu glineneta plocika ot s. Gradesnica, in Archeologija, Sofia, no.3/1970, page 1-9; an interpretation of "writing” from Tartaria was suggested by Radu Florin in note 13, page 272 in the paper work of Gimbutas, Marija, Civilization and Culture. Prehistoric Vestiges in the South-Eastern Europe, quoted work;

5.      The most important discoveries which prove the old European civilization were made in the South-Eastern and Danubian Europe on the present day territories of  Greece, Eastern and Western Italy, the former Jugoslavia, Bulgary, Romania, Western Ukraine, Czechia and the Eastern Slovakia;

6.      Gimbutas, Marija, Civilization and Culture. Prehistoric Vestiges in the South-Eastern Europe, quoted work, page 78;

7.      Blance, B., Die Anfange der Metalurgie auf der Iberischen Halbinsel, in Studien zu den Anfangen der Metalurgie, no.4/1971; Charles, J., A., Early Arsenical Bronzes - a Metallurgical View in American Journal of Archaeology, 71, 1967, page 21-26; Deshayes, J., Les outils de bronze de Pondus au Danube, Paris, 1960; Gimbutas, Marija, Civilization and Culture. Prehistoric Vestiges in the South-Eastern Europe, quoted work, page 51-123;

8.      Nestor, Ion, Zaharia, Eugenia, Sur la périod de transition du néolithique a l’age du bronze dans l’aire des civilisations de Cucuteni et de Gumelnita, in Dacia, 12, 1968, page 17-44; Dinu, Marin, Quelques considerations sur la périod de transition du néolithique a l’age du bronze sur le teritoire de la Moldavie, in Dacia, 12, 1968, page 129-140; Berciu, Dumitru, Contributions to the Problems of Neolithic in the Light of the Last Discoveries on Romania’s territory, Bucharest, 1966, page 86-93, 173-190; Gordon-Childe, V., The Creation of the Civilization, Bucharest, 1966, page 82-115; Idem, From Prehistory to History, Bucharest, 1967, page 60-76; Mellaart, J., Prehistory of Anatolia and its Relations with the Balkans, in Studia Balcanica, art.5, 1971, page 119-137; Niþu, A., The Plastic Zoomorphic Representations on Carpathian-Danubian Neo-Aeneolithic Ceramics, in Archaeology of Moldavia, no.VII, 1972, page 9-96; Mongait, A., L., Arheologia Zapadnoi Evropî. Kamenîi vek, Moskow, 1973, page 195-247, 272-292; Mansuelli, C., A., Civilizations of the Old Europe, Bucharest, 1978, vu. I, page 64-109; Marinescu-Bîlcu, S., Some Aspects of the Links between Romanian Neo-Aeneolithic Aegean and micro-Asian Cultures, in Pontica, no.XIII, 1981, page 57-65; Cucoº, ªt., Some Opinions about the End of Cucuteni Culture, in Carpatica, no.XVII, 1985, page 33-40;

9.      Morintz, S., Archaeological Contributions to the Early History of Thracians.The Bronze Period in the Carpathian-Balkanic Space, 1978; Bader, T., The Bronze Period in the North-Weastern Transylvania. The pre-Thracic and Thracic Culture, Bucharest, 1978; Petrescu-Dîmboviþã, M., Romanian Bronze Storehouses, Bucharest, 1977;  Mongait, A., L., Arheologia Zapadnoi Evropî. Bronzovîi Jeleznîi veka, Moscow, 1974; Florescu, M., Contributions to the Problem of Beginnings of the Bronze period in Moldavia, in Archaeology of Moldavia, II-III, 1964, page 143-216;

10. Pîrvan, V., Getica. A Prehistory of Dacia, edition R. Florescu, Bucharest, 1982; Vulpe, A., Aspects significatifs dans l’histoire et la culture des geto-daces, in RESEE, XVI, 1978, 4, page 619-631; Preda, C., Gaeto-Dacians Coins, Bucharest, 1973; Danov, H., M., Antique Thrace, Bucharest, 1976; Florescu, A., New Aspects about Thracian-Gaeto-Dacians Fortresses from the Second Half of the First Milenium before Christ, in Historical Monuments, XLIX, 1980, page 11-18; Petrescu-Dâmboviþã, M., The pre-Requisites of Gaeto-Dacian Civilization, in Archaeology of Moldavia, IX, 1980, page 63-68;

11. Marinescu, G., Appreciations about the So-called "Scythian problem” under the Influence of the Archaeological Discoveries on Romania’s territory, Bistrita History Museum (reports and essayes), Vol.II, 1971, page 25-35; Balsacov-Ghimpu, Al., A., Moldavia from days of yore to Principality, Bucharest, 2000, page 35-37;

12. For the quoted texts after Herodot, see Histories, edition A. Piatkovschi, F. Vant-Stef, Bucharest, 1961; Thrace, vu V, Sofia, 1980 (article signed by A. P. Mantevici, page 97-120); Berciu, D., Berciu-Draghicescu, A., The War between Getae and Persians, 514 before Christ, Bucharest, 1968, page 59-76; Vulpe, A., First Mentions about Getae-Dacians in the Light of Some Historic-Archaeological Analysis, in Review of History, 39, 1986, 4, page 825-834; Alexandrescu, P., Histria in the Archaic Period (II), Pontica, XIX, 1986, page 70-83; Berciu, D., 2500 years from the Getae Fight for Freedom and Independece, in Review of History, 39, 1986, 12, page 1165-1171;

13. Daicoviciu, H., Dacia between Burebista and The Roman Conquest, Cluj-Napoca, 1972, page 30-90; Crisan, I., H., Burebista and His Period, Bucharest, 1977, page 77 and the following ones;

14. For the follow up of "events” of Thracian world, after Greek historians stories, see Fontes Historiae Thraciae Thracumque, vu I, edited by Zl. Goceva, V. Tapkova-Zaimova, V. Velikov, Sofia, 1981; Bikerman, J., E., Chronology of the Ancient World, London, 1961, page 163-168;

15. Fontes Historiae Daco-Romanae, Bucharest, 1964, vu I, (texts from the antic authors: Polibiu, page 165, Pseudo-Scymnos, page 173, Diodor from Sicilly, page 199, Strabon, page 224-243, Titus Livius, page 225-263, Trogus-Pompeius, page 359-361, The Old Plinius, page 405, Ptolomeu, page 359, 361, Dio Cassius, page 671-677);

16. See: Daicoviciu, H., Dacia between Burebista and The Roman Conquest, Cluj-Napoca, 1972, page 30-91; Vulpe, R., Studia Thracologica, Bucharest, 1976, page 39-79; Crisan, I., H., Burebista and His Period, Bucharest, 1977;

17.  Fontes Historiae Daco-Romanae, quoted paper work, vu I, page 231, 237, 239 (informations from Strabon’s Geography); Gostar, N., Dacians Dinasties from Burebista to Decebal, 1984, 1, page 45-53; Protase, D., Decebalus per Scorilo in the lights of thre old and new interpretations, in Thraco-Dacica, VII, 1986, 1-2, page 146-153;

18. Fontes Historiae Daco-Romanae, Bucharest, 1964, vu I, the Carpae are mentioned in that period by: Ptolemeu, page 539, 543, 555; Dexip, page 733; vu II, Lactantiu, page 5; Eusebiu from Caesareea, page 11; Aurelius Victor, page 25; Ammianus Marcellinus, page 25-127; Gostar, N., Dacian Fortresses in Moldavia, Bucharest, 1969; Bichir, Gh., The Carpae Culture, Bucharest, 1984; Diaconu, Gh., North-Western Dacia in the Roman Period. The Carpae in the Inter-Carpathian Area, 1986, 4, page 296-308;

19. Fontes Historiae Daco-Romanae, Bucharest, 1964, vu I, page 539, 543, 555;

20. Dragan, C., I., The Imperial Milenium of Dacia, Bucharest, 1986;

21. Fontes Historiae Daco-Romanae, Bucharest, 1964, vu I, page 359; Strabon, Geography, Bucharest, 1974, vu II, page 156;

22. Petolescu, C., C., Again about the so-called War of Caracalla against the Carpae, in SCIVA, 39, 1988, 3, page 281-286;

23. Diculescu, C., C., Die Wandale und die Goten in Ungarn und Rumanien, Leipzig, 1923, page 6, 13-14; Schmidt, L., Geschichte der Wandalen, Munich, 1942, page 3-15; Vlassa, N., An Invasion from West of the Former Dacia Province by the Free Dacians in the 4th Century after Christ. (The discoveries from Cipan-Garle), in SCIVA, 16, 1965, 3, page 501-518. First two authors sustain the existance of a German (Vandal)-Roman kingdom in Transylvania after the Roman retreat, with the capital to Cluj-Napoca;

24. Bichir, Gh., The Carpae Culture, quoted paper work, page 183-185;

25. Rosetti, R., The History of Romanian Language from the Beginnings to the 17th Century, Bucharest, 1968;

26. Fontes Historiae Daco-Romanae, quoted paper work, vu II, page 49 (Anonymus Valesii); 81 (Latin Panegirici); page 111-113 (Auxentiu from Durostor); page 133 (Ammianus Marcellinus); page 307 (Zosimos); page 425 (Iordanes); Preda, C., The Circulation of post-Aurelian Roman Coins in Dacia, in SCIVA, 26, 1975, 4, page 441-485; Diesner, J., H., The Great Migration, Leipzig, 1978, page 91-129; Barnea, I., La politica dell’Imperio Romano nel Basso Danubio dopo il ritiro aureliano, in Coloquio italo-romano, Rome, 1982, page 29-44 (extras); Barnea, I., Iliescu, O., Constantine the Great, Bucharest, 1982, page 29-44;

27. Palade, V., Workshops for the Achievement of Boned Combs between Barlad and Valea Seaca, from the 4th Century, in Archaeology of Moldavia, IV, 1966, page 261-276; Idem New Workshops for the Achievement of the Combs of Antlers (stag) at Barlad and Valea Seaca, in the 4th Century, in Archaeology of Moldavia, IV, 1966, page 261-276; Idem, New Handicraft Centre for the Processing of Stag Antlers at Barlad-Valea Seaca, from the 4th Century after Christ, in Studies and Communications of History of Romanian Popular Civilization, no.1, Sibiu, 1981, page 179-215; Tau, S., Nicu, M., Ein beschrifteter Glasbecher aus der Nekopole von Barcea-Tecuci (4 Jahrhundert U.Z.), in Dacia, new series, XXIX, 1985, 1-2, page 165-166; Davidescu, M., The Roman Fortress from Harsova, Bucharest, 1989, page 27-120; Plamadeala, A., History and Spirituality to the Carpathians Curvature, Buzau, 1983, page 69-77;

28. Popa-Lisseanu, C., The Sources of Romanians’ History, Bucharest, 1934-1939, quoted paper, vu I, page 26, 27, 43, 88; vu XV, page 67, 107; Fontes Historiae Daco-Romanae, quoted paper work, vu II, page 413, 427, 445, 457, 471;

29. Procopius from Caesareea, The War with the Goths, edition H. Mihaescu, Bucharest, 1963, page 180-254; Bolsacov-Ghimpu, A., A., La localisation de la forteresse Turris, in Revue des études sud-est  européennes, VII, 1969, 4, page 686-690;

30. Laszlo, Gy., Etudes archéologiques sur l’istoire de la société des Avares, Budapest, 1955, page 5-14; Guboglu, M., The Selgiuci Turks and theirs State, in Studies and Articles of History, XXXII, 1976, page 33-43; Derijavin, N., S., The Slavs from days of yore, Bucharest, 1949, page 9-12; Lemerle, P., Invasions et migrations dans Balkans depuis de fin de l’époque romaine jusqu’an VIII siecle, in Revue historique, 221, fascicule 2, 1954, page 265-308; Fontes Historiae Daco-Romanae, quoted paper work, vu II, page 539, 551, 603; Sampetru, M., The Roman-Byzantine Empire Situation at the Lower Danube at the end of the 4th Century and the beginning of the 7th Century, in SCIVA, 22, 1971, 2, page 271-245;

31. Macinskii, D., A., K voprosu o teritoriia obitaniia slavian v. I-IV vekah, in Arheologicenskii Zbornik, Sankt Petersbourg, 17, 1976, page 82-100; Goriunov, A., E., Rannie etapã istorii slavian Dneprovskogo Levoberejia, Sankt Petersbourg, 1981, page 11-82; Sedov, V., V., Vostocinîe slaviane v. VI-XIII v.v., Moskow, 1982, page 3-45;

32. Zeiller, J., Les origines chrétienne dans les provinces danubiennes d’Empire Romain, Paris, 1918, page 555;

33. Burn, E., A., Nicetas of Remesiana, his Life and Work, Cambridge, 1905, 13.Quoted from Paulinus Nolanus, Carmina, XVII, page 55-56: "donec optato patriam vehatur lactus ad urbem, …patrio que reddat limite tutum…”.